Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that affect the metabolism of carbohydrates , fat , and proteins , and regulate glycogen and blood pressure possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity and cause alteration of connective tissue in response to injuries. The anti-inflammatory and connective tissue effects of glucocorticoids might mask injuries, leading to more serious injuries to athletes. Because of this and metabolic regulation effects, the administration of any glucorticoid orally, rectally, intraveniously, or intramuscularly is prohibited and requires a therapeutic use exemption. Topical uses of glucocorticoids does not require an exemption.
Clitoral gland hyperplasia is typically a focal lesion and more commonly occurs in the glandular tissue but may also occur in the ducts. The lesion may be unilateral or bilateral. Glandular hyperplasia is characterized by an increased number of acinar cells and may be accompanied by an increased number of basal cells. The acini are enlarged and appear crowded compared with the adjacent glandular tissue; however, there is normal cellular morphology and orientation. These latter features differentiate hyperplasia from adenomas, in which acinar structure is distorted, with frequent acinar fusion and solid clusters of neoplastic cells. Clitoral gland hyperplasia occurs as a spontaneous lesion and is often secondary to inflammation, especially in older animals. Hyperplasia is not considered a preneoplastic change in these older animals but, rather, a reactive hyperplasia, and there is no evidence of progression (note inflammation in Figure 1 and Figure 2 ). Androgenic drugs can induce epithelial hyperplasia of the clitoral gland.